(Amyloid; Primary Amyloid; Secondary Amyloid; Hereditary Amyloid)
- Primary amyloidosis—found in the heart, lungs, skin, tongue, thyroid gland, intestines, liver, kidneys, and blood vessels
- Secondary amyloidosis—found in the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes
- Hereditary amyloidosis—found in the nerves, heart, blood vessels, and kidneys
- Primary amyloidosis—caused by the deposit of antibody fragments; associated with bone marrow disorders such as multiple myeloma
- Secondary amyloidosis—develops in response to chronic infection or inflammatory disease
- Hereditary or Familial amyloidosis—caused by mutations of amyloid in the blood
- Primary amyloidosis —Multiple myeloma
- Secondary amyloidosis
- Family history of amyloidosis
- Family history of Mediterranean fever
- Weight loss
- Urinary tract— kidney failure
- Skin—easy bruising, purplish skin around the eyes caused by small blood vessels leaking into the skin
- Lymphatic system—enlarged lymph nodes
- Endocrine system—enlarged thyroid gland
- Swallowing difficulties
- Enlarged tongue
- Clay colored stools
- Numbness, tingling, weakness in hands and feet
- Swelling of nerves in the wrist
- Weak hand grip
- Cardiovascular system—Irregular heart beat
- Difficulty breathing
- Shortness of breath
|Edema in Lower Legs|
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- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Primary amyloidosis (Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis)
- Secondary amyloidosis—from aggressive treatment of an underlying inflammatory process or disease
- Hereditary amyloidodis
Stem Cell Transplantation
- Primary amyloidodis—Your own immature blood cells are transfused. This process is called autologous stem cell transplant. Medications, like chemotherapy drugs, may be used with this treatment.
- Hereditary amyloidodis—Cells are transplanted from a donor body
Treatments for All Forms of Amyloidosis
- Medications—such as diuretics to rid your body of excess fluid and steroids to relieve inflammation
- Dietary changes—The diet chosen will depend on the organ affected and related complications
- Hospice—Treatment to relieve pain and suffering from progressively fatal complications
Amyloidosis Foundation http://www.amyloidosis.org
Office of Rare Diseases Research—National Institutes of Health http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov
Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders http://www.raredisorders.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 2, 2014. Accessed August 7, 2015.
Amyloidosis. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/diseases/amyloidosis/can%5Foverview.aspx . Accessed August 19, 2014.
Merlini G, Bellotti V. Molecular mechanisms of amyloidosis. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349:583.
National Organization for Rare Disorders. A physician's guide to amyloidosis. National Organization for Rare Disorders website. Available at: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/amyloidosis/. Published 2010. Accessed August 19, 2014.
Westermark P, Benson MD, Buxbaum JN, et al. Amyloid: toward terminology clarification. Report from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Society of Amyloidosis. Amyloid 2005; 12:1.
What is amyloidosis? Boston University website. Available at: http://www.bu.edu/amyloid/about/what/. Accessed August 19, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 08/19/2014 -