- Treatable health problems in the mother that can affect the health of the fetus
- Characteristics of the fetus, including size, age, placement in the uterus, and sex
- Genetic, or chromosomal problems
- Antibodies that can cross the placenta and affect the health of the fetus
- Gestational diabetes
- Immunity to certain diseases (such as chickenpox and German measles)
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Sexually transmitted diseases
- Chromosomal disorders: such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), trisomy 18, and trisomy 13. The risk of having of child with a chromosomal disorder increases with the age of the parents.
- Dominant gene disorders: such as Huntington disease and achondroplasia
- Recessive gene disorders: such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, Tay-Sachs disease, and beta thalassemia
- Neural tube defects: such as spina bifida and anencephaly
- Congenital heart defects
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin: invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy. ACOG. December 2007; No. 88.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin: screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. ACOG. January 2007; No. 77.
Bubb JA, Matthews AL. What’s new in prenatal screening and diagnosis? Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2004;31:561-582.
Overview: prenatal tests. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: http://americanpregnancy.org/?s=prenatal+testing. Updated July 2003. Accessed October 1, 2012.
Pregnancy testing. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 9, 2010. Accessed October 2, 2012.
Prenatal tests. Nemours Foundation. KidsHealth website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/prenatal%5Ftests.html. Updated January 2012. Accessed October 1, 2012.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 03/2014 -
- Update Date: 04/30/2014 -