- Central diabetes insipidus (central DI)
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)
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- Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary glands due to surgery, infection, stroke, tumor, or head injury
- Certain medications, such as lithium—the most common cause of NDI
- Certain conditions, such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis
- Kidney disease such as polycystic kidney disease
- Protein malnutrition
- Certain conditions such as hypercalcemia and hypokalemia
- Increased urination, especially during the night
- Extreme thirst
- Dehydration—fast heart rate, dry skin and mouth
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Water deprivation test
- For central DI—taking a synthetic form of ADH
- For NDI—following a low-sodium diet, drinking plenty of water, taking a diuretic
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation http://www.ndif.org
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Central diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 13, 2014. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Garofeanu CG, Weir M, Rosas-Arellano MP, et al. Causes of reversible nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(4):626-637.
Majzoub JA, Srivatsa A. Diabetes insipidus: clinical and basic aspects. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2006;Suppl 1:60-65.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 20, 2013. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Rivkees SA, Dunbar N, Wilson TA. The management of central diabetes insipidus in infancy: desmopressin, low renal solue load formula, thazide diuretics. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2007;20(4):459-469.
Sands JM, Bichet DG. Nephogenic diabetes insipidus. Annals Int Med. 2006;144(3):186-194.
Toumba M, Stanhope R. Morbidity and mortality associated with vasopressin analogue treatment. Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006;19(3):197-201.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 09/2015 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -