Recommended Dietary Allowance
|0-12 months||400 (adequate intake)|
|71 years and older||800|
|Pregnant and breastfeeding women||600|
Sources of Vitamin D
Vitamin D content
|Cod liver oil||1 tablespoon||1,360|
|Salmon, cooked||3 ounces||447|
|Tuna fish, canned in water||3 ounces||154|
|Sardines, canned in oil||2 sardines||46|
|Milk, vitamin D fortified||1 cup||115-124|
|Margarine, fortified||1 tablespoon||60|
|Liver, beef, cooked||3 ounces||42|
Tips for Increasing Your Vitamin D Intake
- Eat fish, especially fatty fish such as salmon and mackerel, 2 times per week.
- Drink vitamin D-fortified milk.
- Get sun exposure, but be careful to watch for sunburn. Sunlight is a major cause of skin cancer. If you will be out in the sun for more than a few minutes, it is important to protect against skin cancer by wearing protective clothing or putting on sunscreen with an SPF (sun protection factor) of 30 or more. In most northern climates, winter sun is too obstructed and low in the sky to allow vitamin D synthesis in the skin. In the winter, vitamin D supplements or multiple servings of milk and fatty fish may be necessary for good health.
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics http://www.eatright.org
International Food Information Council http://www.ific.org
Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Breastfeeding. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 2, 2015. Accessed March 26, 2015.
Giovannoni G, Ebers G. Multiple sclerosis: the environment and causation. Curr Opin Neurol. 2007;20:261-268.
Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:384-390.
Heath KM, Elovic EP. Vitamin D deficiency: implications in the rehabilitation setting. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85:916-923.
Michels KB, Mohllajee AP, Roset-Bahmanyar E, Beehler GP, Moysich KB. Diet and breast cancer: a review of the prospective observational studies. Cancer. 2007;109(Suppl 12):2712-2749.
Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, Howard NS, Ascherio A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 2006;296:2832-2838.
Sunscreen FAQs. American Academy of Dermatology website. Available at: https://www.aad.org/media-resources/stats-and-facts/prevention-and-care/sunscreens. Accessed March 26, 2015.
Vitamin D. Office of Dietary Supplements website.Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional. Updated November 10, 2014. Accessed March 26, 2015.
Vitamin D. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/natural-alterative-treatments. Updated January 23, 2015. Accessed March 26, 2015.
Vitamin D. Oregon State University Linus Pauling Institute website. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminD/index.html. Updated July 2014. Accessed March 26, 2015.
Wagner CL, Greer FR. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008;1221142-1152.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 03/2015 -
- Update Date: 03/26/2015 -