(Cancer of the Testicle; Cancer, Testicular; Seminoma; Germinoma)
- Non-seminomas (yolk sac, embryonal cell carcinoma, teratomas, and choriocarcinoma)
- Stromal cell tumors
- Personal or family history of testicular cancer
- Abnormal testicular development, such as that seen in Klinefelter syndrome
- Undescended testicle that did not move down into the scrotum before birth
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- A painless lump or swelling in either testicle
- Enlargement or swelling of a testicle or change in the way it feels
- Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
- A dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin
- Sudden appearance of fluid in the scrotum
- Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum
- Lower back pain (in later stages of the cancer)
- Breast enlargement unrelated to weight gain—gynecomastia
- Blood tests
- Ultrasound—a test that uses sound waves to find or examine tumors
- Excisional biopsy—removal of testicular tissue for examination under a microscope
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca
Cancer Care Ontario http://www.cancercare.on.ca
Testicular cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003142-pdf.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2015.
Testicular cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 31, 2012. Accessed September 15, 2015.
Testicular cancer—for patients. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/testicular. Accessed September 15, 2015.
Walsh TJ, Dall'Era MA, Croughan MS, Carroll PR, Turek PJ. Prepubertal orchiopexy for cryptorchidism may be associated with lower risk of testicular cancer. J Urol. 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 1):1440-1446.
3/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Ilic D, Misso M. Screening for testicular cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(2):CD007853.
2/1/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Aytekin O, Yacoub JH, Casalino DD, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. 2012; Jun 16. Available at http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/StagingTesticularMalignancy.pdf. Updated June 2012. Accessed September 30, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2015 -
- Update Date: 09/15/2015 -