(Cancer of the Prostate; Prostatic Carcinoma)
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- Family history of prostate cancer, especially father or brother
- Family history of prostate cancer diagnosed at a young age
- A high-fat diet
- A need to urinate frequently, especially at night
- Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine
- Not able to urinate
- Weak or interrupted urine flow
- Painful or burning urination
- Difficulty having an erection
- Painful ejaculation
- Blood in urine or semen
- Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs
- Digital rectal exam
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Have early stage prostate cancer that is growing slowly
- Are of an advanced age
- Have serious health problems (risks of treatment outweigh the benefits)
- Pelvic lymphadenectomy—removal of lymph nodes in the pelvis to determine if they contain cancer
- Radical retropubic prostatectomy—removal of the entire prostate and nearby lymph nodes through an incision in the abdomen
- Radical perineal prostatectomy—removal of the entire prostate through an incision between the scrotum and the anus
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)—removal of part of the prostate with an instrument inserted through the urethra (may be done to relieve symptoms)
- Conformal radiation therapy—conformal radiation therapy uses 3-dimensional radiation beams that are conformed into the shape of the diseased prostate. This treatment spares nearby tissue the damaging effects of radiation.
- Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)—IMRT uses radiation beams of different intensities to deliver higher doses of radiation therapy to the tumor and lower doses to nearby tissues at the same time.
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonists
- Estrogen therapy—rarely used now unless other treatments are not working
- Antifungal medications
- Antineoplastic agents
Other Treatment Options
- Cryosurgery—this involves using an instrument to freeze and destroy prostate cancer cells
- Immunotherapy—a drug treatment that builds your immune system so that you can better fight cancer cells
- Targeted therapies—focus on the cancer cells, rather than attacking both the cancer cells and the healthy cells
- High-intensity focused ultrasound—an endorectal probe (a probe that is inserted into the rectum) is used to destroy cancer cells with ultrasound energy
- Eat a healthful diet. Your diet should be high in fruits, vegetables, and fish, and low in red meat.
- Ask your doctor about taking certain medications. For example, daily aspirin therapy and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors may reduce your risk of prostate cancer.
National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Prostate Cancer Canada http://www.prostatecancer.ca
Angiogenesis inhibitors. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/immunotherapy/angiogenesis-inhibitors-fact-sheet. Updated October 7, 2011. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Biological therapies for cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types/immunotherapy/bio-therapies-fact-sheet. Updated June 12, 2013. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Texas Oncology website. Available at: http://www.texasoncology.com/types-of-cancer/prostate-cancer/targeted-therapy-for-prostate-cancer. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Enzalutamide. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 25, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
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FDA approval for sipuleucel-T. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/druginfo/fda-sipuleucel-T. Updated July 3, 2013. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Imatinib. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 1, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Prostate cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003134-pdf.pdf. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Prostate cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 10, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Prostate cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 4, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Prostate cancer staging and imaging. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 1, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
What is provenge immunotherapy? Provenge website. Available at: http://www.provenge.com/advanced-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy.aspx Accessed July 31, 2012.
2/12/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Smith DP, King MT, Egger S, et al. Quality of life three years after diagnosis of localised prostate cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2009;339:b4817.
2/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mahmud SM, Franco EL, Aprikian AG. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2010;127(7):1680-1691.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 09/2015 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -