- Produce too few sperm cells
- Produce sperm cells of poor quality
- Have chronic problems with ejaculation
|The Male Reproductive System|
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- Genetics diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome and Sertoli-Leydig cell syndrome
- Exposure to workplace chemicals or heavy metals, such as primarily lead and cadmium
- Tobacco use and marijuana use
- Varicocele —enlarged veins within the scrotum
- Abnormal hormone levels
- Physical abnormalities
- Chronic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia
- Excessive physical activity
- Anti-sperm antibodies
- Exposure to toxic chemicals or heavy metals, such as lead
- Liver disease
- Nicotine use, long-term marijuana or cocaine use , steroid use, opiate use , and certain prescription drug use
- Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in the womb
- Overheating of the testicles
- Cystic fibrosis
- Klinefelter syndrome
- Kartagener syndrome
- Spinal cord injuries
- Multiple sclerosis
- Brain tumors , pituitary tumors
- Radiation treatment
- Past infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), mumps , and prostatitis
- Birth defects of the male reproductive system, including history of undescended testicles
- Obesity , high body mass index
- Blood tests
- Semen analysis
- Fertilization tests—to determine how well the sperm can penetrate an egg
- Post-coital test—to check if your sperm is compatible with the mucus in your partner's cervix
- Changing the timing of sexual activity
- Avoiding excessive heat, such as steam rooms and saunas
- Avoiding tobacco , marijuana, and excessive alcohol use
- Wearing looser fitting shorts and pants
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Decreasing stress
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
- Artificial insemination—semen is collected and processed in a lab. It is then inserted directly into the woman's cervix or uterus.
- In vitro fertilization (IVF) —an egg is removed from the woman's body and mixed with sperm in a lab. The egg and sperm mixture or a 2-3 day old embryo is then placed in the uterus.
- Gamete or zygote intrafallopian transfer (GIFT or ZIFT)—an egg is removed from the woman's body and mixed with sperm in a lab. The egg and sperm mixture or a 2-3 day old embryo is then placed in the fallopian tube.
- Blastocyst intrafallopian transfer—an egg is removed from the woman's body. The egg is injected with sperm and allowed to develop. It is later implanted into the uterus.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection—a single sperm is injected into the egg. The resulting embryo can be implanted into the uterus or frozen for later use.
- Use of tobacco, marijuana, opiates, and anabolic steroids
- Exposure to harmful chemicals and heavy metals
- Excessive use of alcohol
- Protect yourself from STDs by using condoms . Minimize the number of sexual partners you have.
American Society for Reproductive Medicine http://www.asrm.org
RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association http://www.resolve.org
Men's Health Centre http://www.menshealthcentre.net
I'm a guy; isn't this a woman's issue? Protect Your Fertility website. Available at: http://www.protectyourfertility.org/malerisks.html. Accessed October 27, 2014.
Infertility in men. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 7, 2014. Accessed October 27, 2014.
Jorgensen N, Carlsen E, Nermoen I, et al. East-West gradient in semen quality in the Nordic-Baltic area: a study of men from the general population in Denmark, Norway, Estonia and Finland. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:2199.
Reproductive health and the workplace. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/repro. Updated June 10, 2014. Accessed October 27, 2014.
Swan SH, Brazil C, Drobnis EZ, et al. Geographic differences in semen quality of fertile US males. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:414.
9/2/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Ghanem H, Shaeer O, El-Segini A. Combination clomiphene citrate and antioxidant therapy for idiopathic male infertility: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2009 Mar 5. [Epub ahead of print]
2/14/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Showell M, Brown J, Yazdani A, Stankiewicz M, Hart R. Antioxidants for male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD007411.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 11/2015 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -