(Renal Failure; Renal Insufficiency)
- Diabetes—high blood sugar can damage nephrons
- High blood pressure—severe high blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the kidneys
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Birth defects
- Bilateral renal artery stenosis
- Severe trauma
- Viral infections (such as, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS)
- Long-term use of medicines that contain aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen
- Abnormal build-up of substances within the kidneys (such as, amyloidosis, protein build-up)
- Toxic reaction to drugs or x-ray dyes
- Systemic diseases (such as, lupus, polyarteritis, Wegeners granulomatosis
- Conditions that severely decrease the amount of blood (such as, burns, pancreatitis, peritonitis)
- Conditions that make it difficult to urinate (such as, enlarged prostate, kidney stones, tumors)
|A blockage from kidney stones has caused renal failure.|
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- Genetics: polycystic kidney disease, type 1 diabetes
- Race: African American
- High blood pressure
- Lupus or other autoimmune diseases
- Long-term use of pain medications containing aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in high doses
- Liver failure, jaundice
- Respiratory failure
- Recent open heart surgery
- Recent surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm
- Condition that obstructs urine flow
- Enlargement of the prostate gland
- Fluid retention
- Swollen and numb hands and feet, itchy skin
- Fatigue, insomnia
- Low urine output (or no urine output in severe cases), frequent urination
- Altered consciousness
- Loss of appetite, malnutrition
- Sores, bad taste in the mouth
- Nausea, vomiting
- Muscle cramps and twitches
- Shortness of breath
- High blood pressure
- Low temperature
- Seizures, coma
- Breath smelling like urine
- Yellowish-brownish skin tone
An increase in:
- Parathyroid hormone
- Blood urea nitrogen
- A decrease in serum calcium
- Restricting fluids
- Doing daily weight checks
- Eating a high-carbohydrate, low-protein diet
- Diuretics—to flush out the kidneys, increase urine flow, and rid the body of excess sodium (such as, furosemide, mannitol)
- Blood pressure medications (such as, ACE inhibitors)
- Medicine to treat anemia (such as, epoetin alfa [Epogen, Procrit], ascorbic acid [vitamin C])
- Sodium polystyrene sulfonate or insulin in dextrose—to control high potassium levels
- Calcium acetate—to control high phosphorus levels
- Red blood cells
- Have your blood pressure checked regularly. Take medication to control high blood pressure.
- If you have diabetes, control your blood sugar. Ask your doctor for help.
- Avoid the chronic use of pain medications.
- If you have chronic kidney disease, you may need to limit how much protein you eat. Talk to a dietician.
- Limit how much cholesterol and sodium you eat.
- If you have severe kidney disease, limit how much potassium you eat. If your kidneys are failing, get help from a dietician.
National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ab.ca
Chronic kidney disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated October 12, 2012. Accessed October 16, 2012.
Johnson CA, Levey AS, et al. Glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and other markers. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70:1091-1097.
Johnson CA, Levey AS, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in adults: part I. Definition, disease stages, evaluation, treatment, and risk factors. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70:869-876.
Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:S1-201.
Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43:S1-S9.
Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:S1-266.
Snivel CS, Gutierrez C. Chronic kidney disease: prevention and treatment of common complications. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70:1921-1928.
Use of herbal supplements in chronic kidney disease. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/herbalsupp.cfm. Accessed October 16, 2012.
The kidneys and how they work. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/#10. Updated February 2009. Accessed October 16, 2012.
1/4/2011 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Deved V, Poyah P, James MT, et al. Ascorbic Acid for Anemia Management in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Sep 22.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 10/2012 -
- Update Date: 10/31/2012 -