(Renal Failure; Renal Insufficiency)
- Acute kidney failure—sudden loss of kidney function
- Chronic kidney failure—slow, gradual loss of kidney function
|Anatomy of the Kidney|
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- Diabetes—high blood sugar can damage nephrons
- High blood pressure—severe high blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the kidneys
- Chronic diseases that affect kidney function
- Genetic abnormalities or birth defects that affect kidney function
- Autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis , and Wegeners granulomatosis
- Severe trauma
- Viral infections, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV
- Long-term use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially in high doses
- Conditions that affect blood volume, such as burns, pancreatitis, peritonitis, bleeding, and dehydration
- Conditions that make it difficult to urinate such as enlarged prostate, kidney stones, and tumors
- Recent heart surgery, such as open heart surgery or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair
- Fluid retention
- Swollen and numb hands and feet, itchy skin
- Fatigue and/or insomnia
- Low or no urine output
- Frequent urination in severe cases
- Altered consciousness
- Loss of appetite, malnutrition
- Sores, bad taste in the mouth
- Nausea, vomiting
- Muscle cramps and twitches
- Shortness of breath
- High blood pressure
- Low temperature
- Seizures, coma
- Breath smelling like urine
- Yellowish-brownish skin tone
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Restricting fluids
- Doing daily weight checks
- Eating a high-carbohydrate, low-protein diet
- Diuretics —to flush out the kidneys, increase urine flow, and rid the body of excess sodium
- Blood pressure medications
- Medications to treat anemia
- Sodium polystyrene sulfonate or insulin in dextrose to control high potassium levels
- Medications to control high phosphorus levels
- Have your blood pressure checked regularly. Take medication to control high blood pressure.
- If you have diabetes, control your blood sugar. Ask your doctor for help.
- Avoid the chronic use of pain medications.
- Depending on the severity of kidney disease, there may be dietary restrictions on protein, cholesterol, sodium, or potassium.
National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Chronic kidney disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 22, 2013. Accessed July 8, 2013.
Johnson CA, Levey AS, Coresh J, Levin A, Lau J, Eknoyan G. Glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and other markers. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70(6):1091-1097.
Johnson CA, Levey AS, Coresh J, Levin A, Lau J, Eknoyan G. Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in adults: part I. Definition, disease stages, evaluation, treatment, and risk factors. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70(5):869-876.
Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43(5 Suppl 1):S1-S290.
Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Kidney disease outcomes quality initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(2 Suppl 1):S1-S266.
National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42(4 Suppl 3):S1-S201.
Snivel CS, Gutierrez C. Chronic kidney disease: prevention and treatment of common complications. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70(10):1921-1928.
Use of herbal supplements in chronic kidney disease. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/herbalsupp. Accessed July 8, 2013.
The kidneys and how they work. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Anatomy/kidneys-how-they-work/Pages/anatomy.aspx. Updated March 23, 2012. Accessed July 8, 2013.
1/4/2011 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Deved V, Poyah P, James MT, et al. Ascorbic acid for anemia management in hemodialysis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(6):1089-1097.
10/10/2013 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed Di lorio B, Molony D, Bell C, et al. Sevelamer versus calcium carbonate in incident hemodialysis patients: Results of an open-label 24-month randomized clinical trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62(4):771-778.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 10/10/2013 -