- Sliding hiatal hernia—part of the stomach slides into and out of the chest cavity. This is the most common type.
- Fixed hiatal hernia—upper part of the stomach remains in the chest cavity.
- Complicated hiatal hernia—Several other types of stomach herniation may be seen. These are uncommon but more serious and may require surgery.
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- Abdominal injury
increased pressure in the abdomen from activities like:
- Severe coughing
- Sudden physical exertion such as weight lifting
- Heartburn, especially after eating or lying down
- Pain or discomfort in the stomach, chest, or esophagus
- Frequent clearing of the throat from irritation
- Chest pain
- Difficulty swallowing
- Fatty foods
- Alcoholic beverages
- Citrus fruits and juices
- Tomato products
- Hot peppers
- Carbonated beverages
- Consume smaller meals 4-6 times a day versus three large meals.
- Do not eat within 2-3 hours of bedtime.
Reduce Pressure on Your Abdomen
- Wear clothes and belts that are loose around your waist.
- Avoid stooping or bending after meals, which puts increased pressure on the abdomen.
- You have severe GERD symptoms that do not respond to other treatments.
- The hernia is at risk for twisting and cutting off the blood supply to your stomach. This is an emergency and requires immediate surgery.
American College of Gastroenterology http://www.acg.gi.org
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov
Canadian Medical Association http://www.cma.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Gastroesophageal reflux disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 27, 2013. Accessed April 8, 2013.
Heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/gerd/index.aspx. April 30, 2012. Accessed April 8, 2013.
Hiatal hernia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 14, 2013. Accessed April 8, 2013.
Hiatus hernia. The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal%5Fdisorders/esophageal%5Fand%5Fswallowing%5Fdisorders/hiatus%5Fhernia.html. Updated February 2012. Accessed April 8, 2013.
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 03/2014 -
- Update Date: 05/01/2014 -