(Diabetes, Gestational; GDM; Gestational Onset Diabetes Mellitus [GODM]; Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy)
|Large Baby Due to Gestational Diabetes|
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- Obesity or being overweight—This can affect the body's ability to use insulin.
- Gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy
- Family history of type 2 diabetes
- Previous delivery of a large baby
- Sleep-disordered breathing—abnormal breathing during sleep ranging from snoring to sleep apnea
- History of polycystic ovary syndrome
- Previous stillbirth or too much fluid surrounding a baby during pregnancy
- Multiple pregnancy—carrying two or more babies
- Increased urination
- Vaginal or urinary tract infections
- Eat a balanced diet. Do not skip meals.
- Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and high fiber foods .
- Limit the amount of fat you eat.
- Avoid foods high in sugar such as soda, candy, and cookies.
- Manage your portion sizes at each meal.
- Plan a bedtime snack each night. It should include protein and complex carbohydrates such as legumes, potatoes, corn, or rice.
- Keep a record of your food intake. Share this information with your doctor.
Blood Sugar Testing
- Do not gain more weight than recommended during pregnancy.
- Eat a healthy diet.
- Exercise regularly. Talk to your doctor before starting an exercise program.
- Talk to your doctor about whether you should take probiotics to reduce your risk of gestational diabetes.
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Gestational diabetes. ACOG practice bulletin No. 30. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:525-538.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 19, 2014. Accessed September 29, 2014.
Hillier TA, Pedula KL, Vesco KK, et al. Excess gestational weight gain: modifying fetal macrosomia risk associated with maternal glucose. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1007-1014.
How to treat gestational diabetes. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/how-to-treat-gestational.html. Updated April 29, 2014. Accessed September 29, 2014.
2/5/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Cheng YW, Chung JH, Kurbisch-Block I, Inturrisi M, Shafer S, Caughey AB. Gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes mellitus: perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1015-1022.
4/1/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Dhulkotia JS, Ola B, Fraser R, Farrell T. Oral hypoglycemic agents vs insulin in management of gestational diabetes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(5):457.e1-9.
3/17/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Luoto R, Laitinen K, et al. Impact of material probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2010. Jun;103(12):1792-1799.
6/9/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Qin JZ, Pang LH, et al. Obstetric complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:56
10/13/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Zhang C, Tobias DK, et al. Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2014 Sep 30;349.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 10/13/2014 -