|Cirrhosis of the Liver|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Excessive consumption of alcohol
- Hepatitis C, B, and D
- Autoimmune hepatitis
- Inherited diseases, such as glycogen storage disease, hemochromatosis, or cystic fibrosis
- Genetic conditions such as:
- Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), associated with:
Bile duct blockages, associated with:
- Congenital defects
- Scarred ducts—sometimes related to inflammatory bowel disorders
- Gallbladder surgery
- Drugs and toxins:
- Heart failure, causing blood to repeatedly back up into the liver
- Poor appetite, nausea, or weight loss
- Abdominal swelling, tenderness, and pain
- Appearance of thin, purplish-red, spidery looking blood vessels on the skin
- Menstrual problems
- Erectile dysfunction
- Enlarged breasts in men—gynecomastia
- Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes—jaundice
- Dark urine
- Swelling in the legs and abdomen
- Loss of body hair
- Bleeding and bruising
- Vomiting blood
- Neurological problems, such as forgetfulness, confusion, agitation, or tremors
- Blood tests
- Liver biopsy
- Removing fluid from the abdomen and examining it
- Inserting a catheter into the liver vein and measuring the pressure within that vein—rarely necessary
- Other tests to determine what caused the cirrhosis and what complications may occur
- Controlling the cause
- Treating underlying medical conditions
- Preventing additional damage
- Treating symptoms and complications
- Having liver cancer screenings
- Treat hepatitis and complications that arise
- Reduce the absorption of waste products and toxins in the digestive system
- Reduce the risk of a broken blood vessel
- Fight infections
- Shed excess fluids
- Complications can no longer be controlled using medical therapy
- The liver stops functioning
- Stop drinking alcohol completely.
- Do not take any medications without your doctor's approval, including over-the-counter drugs.
- Eat a balanced diet . Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables, as well as lean proteins, like beans and poultry.
- If your liver disease is more advanced, you may need to limit protein intake. Your weakened liver will not be able to process it properly.
- You may need to limit salt in your diet, because it increases water retention.
- Take any vitamin supplements your doctor recommends.
- Put your feet and legs up to decrease swelling.
- Due to increased risk of infections, take these steps:
- Drink alcohol in moderation. Moderate alcohol intake is no more than two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women.
- Get hepatitis vaccines.
- Practice safe sex to lower your chance of getting hepatitis B.
- If you use IV drugs, do not share needles. Needles can spread hepatitis B, C, or D.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Follow your doctor's recommendations about blood tests when taking medications that may damage the liver.
American Gastroenterological Association http://www.gastro.org
American Liver Foundation http://www.liverfoundation.org
Canadian Liver Foundation http://www.liver.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Cirrhosis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/liver-disease/cirrhosis/Pages/facts.aspx. Updated April 23, 2014. Accessed September 12, 2014.
Cirrhosis of the liver. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 13, 2014. Accessed September 12, 2014.
Hirschfield GM, Gershwin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis: one disease with many faces. Isr Med Assoc J. 2011;13(1):55-59.
Molodecky NA, Kareemi H, Parab R, Barkema HW, Quan H, Myers RP, Kaplan GG. Incidence of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepatology. 2011;53(5):1590-1599.
Starr PS, Raines D. Cirrhosis: Diagnosis, management, and prevention. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(12):1353-1359.
Understanding cirrhosis of the liver. American Gastroenterological Association website. Available at: http://www.gastro.org/info%5Ffor%5Fpatients/2013/6/6/understanding-cirrhosis-of-the-liver. Accessed September 12, 2014.
2/12/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Chang Y, Ryu S, Sung E, et al. Weight gain within the normal weight range predicts ultrasonographically detected fatty liver in healthy Korean men. Gut. 2009;58(10):1419-1425.
- Reviewer: Daus Mahnke, MD
- Review Date: 08/2015 -
- Update Date: 09/12/2014 -