FDA Safety Rating
The Role of Teratology Specialists
- Medicines a woman took before she realized she was pregnant
- Medicines prescribed for an illness that occurs during pregnancy
- Medicines for chronic conditions
- An obstetric care provider who specializes in high risk pregnancies
- The doctor managing the chronic condition
- The primary care provider (if not managing the chronic condition or the pregnancy)
- A genetic counselor
Risks and Benefits
- A—controlled studies show no risk
- B—risk unlikely
- C—risk cannot be ruled out
- D—positive evidence of risk (maternal benefit may outweigh fetal risk in serious or life threatening situations)
- X—contraindicated in pregnancy (positive evidence of serious fetal harm)
- D—ACE inhibitors
- D—Aspirin (not recommended except for certain conditions.)
Organization of Teratology Information Services (OTIS) http://otispregnancy.org/
WomensHealth.gov US Department of Health & Human Services http://www.womenshealth.gov/
Canadian Association of Family Physicians http://www.cfpc.ca/
Women's Health http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca/
About Us. Organization of Teratology Information Specialists website. Available at: http://www.otispregnancy.org/faq's-about-otis-s13032#2. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Black R, Hill DA. Over-the Counter Medications in Pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(12):2517-2524.
Medication and Drug Exposure in Pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated November 2, 2012. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Medicine and Pregnancy. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ByAudience/ForWomen/ucm118567.htm. Updated August 23, 2012. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Natural Herbs & Vitamins During Pregnancy. American Pregnancy Association website. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/naturalherbsvitamins.html. Updated July 2011. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Pregnancy Registries. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/WomensHealthResearch/ucm251314.htm. July 22, 2011. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Treatments and Discomforts During Pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated November 2, 2012. Accessed November 28, 2012.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 11/2012 -
- Update Date: 11/28/2012 -