FDA Safety Rating
The Role of Teratology Specialists
- Medications a woman took before she realized she was pregnant
- Medications prescribed for an illness that occurs during pregnancy
- Medications for chronic conditions
- An obstetric care provider who specializes in high risk pregnancies
- The doctor managing the chronic condition
- The primary care provider (if not managing the chronic condition or the pregnancy)
- A genetic counselor
Risks and Benefits
- A—controlled studies show no risk
- B—risk unlikely
- C—risk cannot be ruled out
- D—positive evidence of risk (maternal benefit may outweigh fetal risk in serious or life threatening situations)
- X—contraindicated in pregnancy (positive evidence of serious fetal harm)
- D—ACE inhibitors
- D—Aspirin (not recommended except for certain conditions.)
MotherToBaby—Organization of Teratology Information Specialists http://otispregnancy.org
Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services http://www.womenshealth.gov
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Women's Health http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Black R, Hill DA. Over-the-counter Medications in Pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(12):2517-2524.
Medication and drug exposure in pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 30, 2014. Accessed November 12, 2014.
Medicine and pregnancy. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ByAudience/ForWomen/ucm118567.htm. Updated January 14, 2014. Accessed November 12, 2014.
Herbs and pregnancy. American Pregnancy Association website. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/naturalherbsvitamins.html. Updated July 2011. Updated January 2014. Accessed November 12, 2014.
Treatments of discomforts during pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 11, 2014. Accessed November 12, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 11/2014 -
- Update Date: 11/28/2012 -