Hepatitis B Vaccine
(Hep B Vaccine)
What Is Hepatitis B?
- Having sex with someone infected with HBV
- Having multiple sexual partners
- Injecting illegal drugs
- Having male homosexual sex
- Living in the same house as someone with chronic hepatitis B
- Coming in contact with human blood
- Working in the home of someone who is developmentally disabled
- Having hemophilia
- Traveling to areas where hepatitis B is common
- Having parents born in Southeast Asia, Africa, the Amazon Basin in South America, the Pacific Islands, or the Middle East
- Yellowing of the skin and eyes ( jaundice )
- Fatigue that lasts for weeks or even months
- Abdominal pain in the area of the liver (upper right side)
- Loss of appetite
- Joint pain
- Low-grade fever
- Dark urine and light-colored stool
- Widespread itching
What Is the Hepatitis B Vaccine?
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
- 1-2 months
- 6-18 months
- Having multiple sex partners
- Getting treatment or counseling for a sexually transmitted disease (STD)
- Being a man who has sex with other men
- Being an IV drug user or having a history of injecting drugs
- Having chronic kidney disease , liver disease, or HIV
- Undergoing dialysis
- Having diabetes (if younger than 60 years old)
- Having a job where you might be exposed to HBV-infected blood or body fluids (eg, medical facility, correctional facility)
- Working or living in an institution for the developmentally disabled
- Living with or working with people who have chronic HBV infection
- Traveling to areas where there is a high rate of HBV infection
What Are the Risks Associated With the Hepatitis B Vaccine?
Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
- Had a life-threatening allergic reaction to baker's yeast or to a previous dose of hepatitis B vaccine
- Are moderately or severely ill—Wait until you recover to get the vaccine.
What Other Ways Can Hepatitis B Be Prevented Besides Vaccination?
- Practicing safe sex
- Getting a blood test for hepatitis B if you are pregnant
- Avoiding illegal drugs
- Not using other people's personal care items that may have blood on them (eg, razors, toothbrushes)
- Considering the risks before getting a tattoo or body piercing
- Following safety precautions when handling needles or other sharp objects
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/
National Immunization Program Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/
Baker CJ, Pickerling LK, Chilton L, et al. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2011. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(3):168-173.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2011. MMWR. 2011;60(5).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.
Hepatitis B. National Center for Infectious Diseases website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/ . Accessed February 6, 2007.
Hepatitis B. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/factvax.htm . Accessed February 6, 2007.
Hepatitis B vaccination. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/hepb/default.htm . Accessed February 6, 2007.
Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-6 years—United States, 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/schedules/downloads/child/0-6yrs-schedule-pr.pdf . Published December 23, 2011. Accessed February 10, 2012.
Vaccine information statement: hepatitis B vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-hep-b.pdf . Updated February 2, 2012. Accessed February 10, 2012.
1/31/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2008. MMWR. 2008;57;Q1-Q4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5701a8.htm . Updated January 10, 2008. Accessed January 28, 2008.
10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Prymula R, Siegrist C, Chlibek R, et al. Effect of prophylactic paracetamol administration at time of vaccination on febrile reactions and antibody responses in children: two open-label, randomised controlled trials. Lancet . 2009;374(9698):1339.
- Reviewer: Lawrence Frisch, MD, MPH
- Review Date: 06/2012 -
- Update Date: 00/61/2012 -