1 Thompson LU. Experimental studies on lignans and cancer. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;12:691–705.
2 Siguel EN. Essential and trans fatty acid metabolism in health and disease. Compr Ther . 1994;20:500–510.
3 Prasad K. Dietary flax seed in prevention of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132:69–76.
4 Arjmandi BH, Khan DA, Juma S, et al. Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res . 1998;18:1203–1214.
5 Singer P, Jaeger W, Berger I, et al. Effects of dietary oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids on blood pressure, serum lipids, lipoproteins and the formation of eicosanoid precursors in patients with mild essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens . 1990;4:227–233.
6 de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet . 1994;343:1454–1459.
7 Rice RD. Mediterranean diet. Lancet . 1994;344:893–894.
8 Nordstrom DCE, Honkanen VEA, Nasu Y, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study: Flaxseed vs. safflower seed. Rheumatol Int . 1995;14:231–234.
9 Stoll AL, Locke CA, Marangell LB, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder: a review. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1999;60:329–337.
10 Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, et al. Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17:1373-6.
11 Bougnoux P, Koscielny S, Chajes V, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue: a host determinant of the risk of early metastasis in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1994;70:330–334.
12 Rose DP. Dietary fatty acids and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr . 1997;66(suppl):998S–1003S.
13 Thompson LU. Experimental studies on lignans and cancer. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;12:691–705.
14 Maillard V, Bougnoux P, Ferrari P, et al. N-3 and N-6 fatty acids in breast adipose tissue and relative risk of breast cancer in a case-control study in Tours, France. Int J Cancer . 2002;98:78-83.
15 Fritsche KL, Johnston PV. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on growth, metastasis, fatty acid profile and prostaglandin production of two murine mammary adenocarcinomas. J Nutr . 1990;120:1601–1609.
16 De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Ronco A. Essential fatty acids and breast cancer; a case-control study in Uruguay. Int J Cancer . 1998;76:491–494.
17 Newcomer LM, King IB, Wicklund KG, Stanford JL. The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk. Prostate . 2001;47:262-268.
18 Knudsen VK, Hansen HS, Osterdal ML et al. Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 2006 Mar 27 [Epub ahead of print].
19 Harper CR, Edwards MC, Jacobson TA. Flaxseed oil supplementation does not affect plasma lipoprotein concentration or particle size in human subjects. J Nutr. 2006;136:2844-8.
20 Paschos GK, Magkos F, Panagiotakos DB, et al. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients. Eur J Clin Nutr . 2007. (advance online publication 31 January 2007)
21 Pinheiro MN Jr, dos Santos PM, dos Santos RC, et al. Oral flaxseed oil ( Linum usitatissimum ) in the treatment for dry-eye Sjogren's syndrome patients. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:649-655.
22 Barre DE, Mizier-Barre KA, Griscti O, et al. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics. J Oleo Sci. 2008;57:269-273.
23 Gracious BL, Chirieac MC, Costescu S, Finucane TL, Youngstrom EA, Hibbeln JR. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of flax oil in pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2010;12(2):142-154.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -