Other Proposed Natural Treatments
- 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan)
- Coleus forskohlii
- Combination Herb/Supplement Therapies
- Ephedrine (Alone or With Caffeine)
- Evening Primrose Oil
- Green Tea
- Hoodia gordonii
- Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA) ( Garcinia cambogia )
- Low-carb Diet
- Low-glycemic Index Diet
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin D
- Many Others
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Treatments for Weight Loss
Caffeine and Ephedrine
Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs)
Other Approaches to Weight Loss
- Anemarrhena asphodeloides
- Azadirachta indica ( neem )
- Bilberry leaf
- Bitter melon ( Momordica charantia )
- Catharanthus roseus
- Coccinia indica
- Cucumis sativus
- Cucurbita ficifolia
- Cuminum cyminum (cumin)
- Euphorbia prostrata
- Guaiacum coulteri
- Guazuma ulmifolia
- Holy basil ( Ocimum sanctum)
- Lepechinia caulescens
- Musa sapientum L. (banana)
- Nopal cactus ( Opuntia streptacantha )
- Psacalium peltatum
- Rhizophora mangle
- Salacia oblonga
- Salt bush
- Spinacea oleracea
- Tournefortia hirsutissima
- Turnera diffusa
1 Blackburn G. Effect of degree of weight loss on health benefits. Obes Res. 1995;3(suppl 2):211S-216S.
2 Stevens VJ, Obarzanek E, Cook NR, et al. Long-term weight loss and changes in blood pressure: results of the trials of hypertension prevention, phase II. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:1-11.
3 Felson DT, Zhang Y, Anthony JM, et al. Weight loss reduces the risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women. The Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:535-539.
4 Goldstein DJ. Beneficial health effects of modest weight loss. Int J Obes. 1992;16:397-415.
5 Solomon CG, Manson JE. Obesity and mortality: a review of the epidemiologic data. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(suppl 4):1044S-1050S.
6 Moore LL, Visioni AJ, Wilson PW, et al. Can sustained weight loss in overweight individuals reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus? Epidemiology. 2000;11:269-273.
7 Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Curr Ther Res. 1996;57:747-765.
8 Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Curr Ther Res. 1998;59:379-388.
9 Grant KE, Chandler RM, Castle AL, et al. Chromium and exercise training: Effect on obese women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:992-998.
10 Trent LK, Thieding-Cancel D. Effects of chromium picolinate on body composition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1995;35:273-280.
11 Clancy SP, Clarkson PM, DeCheke ME, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994;4:142-153.
12 Hallmark MA, Reynolds TH, DeSouza CA, et al. Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:139-144.
13 Amato P, Morales AJ, Yen SS. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body composition in healthy, nonobese, older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55:M260-M263.
14 Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, et al. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:954-964.
21 Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Hoyson R, et al. Pyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: effects on plasma lipid concentrations and body composition in hyperlipidemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:423-427.
22 Stanko RT, Tietze DL, Arch JE. Body composition, energy utilization, and nitrogen metabolism with a 4.25-MJ/d low-energy diet supplemented with pyruvate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:630-635.
23 Stanko RT, Arch JE. Inhibition of regain in body weight and fat with addition of 3-carbon compounds to the diet with hyperenergetic refeeding after weight reduction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:925-930.
24 Stanko RT, Tietze DL, Arch JE. Body composition, energy utilization, and nitrogen metabolism with a severely restricted diet supplemented with dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:771-772.
25 Kalman D, Colker CM, Wilets I, et al. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition. 1999;15:337-340.
26 Ryttig KR, Tellnes G, Haegh L, et al. A dietary fibre supplement and weight maintenance after weight reduction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled long-term trial. Int J Obes. 1989;13:165-171.
27 Rigaud D, Ryttig KR, Angel LA, et al. Overweight treated with energy restriction and a dietary fibre supplement: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Obes. 1990;14:763-769.
28 Rossner S, von Zweigbergk D, Ohlin A, et al. Weight reduction with dietary fibre supplements. Results of two double-blind randomized studies. Acta Med Scand. 1987;222:83-88.
29 Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes. 1984;8:289-293.
30 Reffo GC, Ghirardi PE, Forattani C. Double-blind evaluation of glucomannan versus placebo in postinfarcted patients after cardiac rehabilitation. Curr Ther Res. 1990;47:753-758.
31 Vido L, Facchin P, Antonello I, et al. Childhood obesity treatment: double blinded trial on dietary fibres (glucomannan) versus placebo. Paediatr Paedol. 1993;28:133-136.
32 Schiller RN, Barrager E, Schauss AG, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examining the effects of a rapidly soluble chitosan dietary supplement on weight loss and body composition in overweight and mildly obese individuals. J Am Nutraceutical Assoc. 2001;4:42-49.
33 Pittler MH, Abbot NC, Harkness EF, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of chitosan for body weight reduction. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;53:379-381.
34 Di Lorenzo C, Williams CM, Hajnal F, et al. Pectin delays gastric emptying and increases satiety in obese subjects. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:1211-1215.
35 Wilmshurst P, Crawley JC. The measurement of gastric transit time in obese subjects using 24Na and the effects of energy content and guar gum on gastric emptying and satiety. Br J Nutr. 1980;44:1-6.
36 Heini AF, Lara-Castro C, Schneider H, et al. Effect of hydrolyzed guar fiber on fasting and postprandial satiety and satiety hormones: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial during controlled weight loss. Int J Obes. 1998;22:906-909.
37 Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes. 1984;8:289-293.
38 Reffo GC, Ghirardi PE, Forattani C. Double-blind evaluation of glucomannan versus placebo in postinfarcted patients after cardiac rehabilitation. Curr Res Ther. 1990;47:753-758.
39 Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:913-919.
40 Ryttig KR, Tellnes G, Haegh L, et al. A dietary fibre supplement and weight maintenance after weight reduction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled long-term trial. Int J Obes. 1989;13:165-171.
41 Rossner S, von Zweigbergk D, Ohlin A, et al. Weight reduction with dietary fibre supplements. Results of two double-blind randomized studies. Acta Med Scand. 1987;222:83-88.
42 Byerley WF, Judd LL, Reimherr FW, et al. 5-hydroxytryptophan: a review of its antidepressant efficacy and adverse effects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987;7:127-137.
43 Poldinger W, Calanchini B, Schwarz W. A functional-dimensional approach to depression: Serotonin deficiency as a target syndrome in a comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan and fluvoxamine. Psychopathology. 1991;24:53-81.
44 Ceci F, Cangiano C, Cairella M, et al. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan administration on feeding behavior in obese adult female subjects. J Neural Transm. 1989;76:109-117.
45 Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cascino A, et al. Eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:863-867.
46 Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cairella M, et al. Effects of 5-Hydroxytryptophan on eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;294:591-593.
47 Cangiano C, Laviano A, Del Ben M, et al. Effects of oral 5-hydroxy-tryptophan on energy intake and macronutrient selection in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:648-654.
51 Chao D, Espeland MA, Farmer D, et al. Effect of voluntary weight loss on bone mineral density in older overweight women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:753-759.
52 Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, et al. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:4635-4638.
53 Greenwood MRC, Cleary MP, Gruen R, et al. Effect of hydroxycitrate on development of obesity in the Zucker obese rat. Am J Physiol. 1981;240:E72-E78.
54 Sullivan AC, Triscari J. Metabolic regulation as a control for lipid disorders. Influence of hydroxycitrate on experimentally induced obesity in the rodent. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977;30:767-776.
55 Sullivan AC, Triscari J, Hamilton JG, et al. Effect of hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat: I. Lipogenesis. Lipids. 1974;9:121-128.
56 Sullivan AC, Triscari J, Hamilton JG, et al. Effect of hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat. II. Appetite. Lipids. 1974;9:129-134.
57 Sergio W. A natural food, malabar tamarind, may be effective in the treatment of obesity. Med Hypotheses. 1988;27:39-40.
58 Lowenstein JM. Effect of hydroxycitrate on fatty acid synthesis by rat liver in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1971;246:629-632.
59 Triscari J, Sullivan AC. Comparative effects of hydroxycitrate and (+)- allo -hydroxycitrate on acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in vivo. Lipids. 1977;12:357-363.
60 Cheema-Dhadli S, Harlperin ML, Leznoff CC. Inhibition of enzymes which interact with citrate by hydroxycitrate and 1,2,3,-tricarboxybenzene. Eur J Biochem. 1973;38:98-102.
61 Sullivan AC, Hamilton JG, Miller ON, et al. Inhibition of lipogenesis in rat liver by hydroxycitrate. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1972;150:183-190.
62 Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998;280:1596-1600.
63 Kriketos AD, Thompson HR, Greene H, et al. Hydroxycitric acid does not affect energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in adult males in a post-absorptive state. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23:867-873.
64 Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol Behav. 2000;71:87-94.
65 Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, et al. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese subjects on an energy restricted diet. A double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:269-277.
66 Molnar D, Torok K, Erhardt E, et al. Safety and efficacy of treatment with an ephedrine/caffeine mixture. The first double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1573-1578.
67 Breum L, Pedersen JK, Aglstrom, et al. Comparison of an ephedrine/caffeine combination and dexfenfluramine in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind multi-centre trial in general practice. Int Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:99-103.
68 Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, et al. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:316-324.
69 Norregaard J, Jorgensen S, Mikkelsen KL, et al. The effect of ephedrine plus caffeine on smoking cessation and postcessation weight gain. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;60:679-686.
70 Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, et al. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese subjects on an energy restricted diet. A double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:269-277.
71 Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S. Pharmacological and clinical studies of ephedrine and other thermogenic agonists. Obes Res. 1995;3:537S-540S.
72 Naylor GJ, et al. A double blind placebo controlled trial of ascorbic acid in obesity. IRCS J Med Sci. 1982;10:25-28.
73 Naylor GJ, Grant L, Smith C. A double blind placebo controlled trial of ascorbic acid in obesity. Nutr Health. 1985;4:25-28.
74 Haslett C, Douglas JG, Chalmers SR, et al. A double-blind evaluation of evening primrose oil as an antiobesity agent. Int J Obes. 1983;7:549-553.
75 Garcia CM, Carter J, Chou A. Gamma linolenic acid causes weight loss and lower blood pressure in overweight patients with family history of obesity. Swed J Biol Med. 1986;4:8-11.
76 Thom E. A pilot study with the aim of studying the efficacy and tolerability of CLA (Tonalin) on the body composition in humans [unpublished]. July 1997.
77 West D. Reduced body fat with conjugated linoleic acid feeding in the mouse [abstract]. FASEB J. 1997;11:A599.
78 Ferreira M, Kreider R, Wilson M, et al. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation during resistance training on body composition and strength [abstract]. J Strength Cond Res. 1997;11:280.
79 Blankson H, Stakkestad JA, Fagertun H, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. J Nutr. 2000;130:2943-2948.
80 Nagao T, Watanabe H, Goto N, et al. Dietary diacylglycerol suppresses accumulation of body fat compared to triacylglycerol in men in a double-blind controlled trial. J Nutr. 2000;130:792-797.
81 Becker EW, Jakober B, Luft D, et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga Spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study. Nutr Rep Int. 1986;33:565-574.
82 Hoeger WWK, Harris C, Long EM, et al. Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition. Adv Ther. 1998;15:305-314.
83 Colker CM, Kalman DS, Torina GC, et al. Effects of Citrus aurantium extract, caffeine, and St. John's wort on body fat loss, lipid levels, and mood states in overweight healthy adults. Curr Ther Res. 1999;60:145-153.
84 Dulloo AG, Seydoux J, Girardier L, et al. Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:252-258.
85 Antonio J, Colker CM, Torina GC, et al. Effects of a standardized guggulsterone phosphate supplement on body composition in overweight adults: A pilot study. Curr Ther Res. 1999;60:220-227.
86 Villani RG, Gannon J, Self M, et al. L-Carnitine supplementation combined with aerobic training does not promote weight loss in moderately obese women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:199-207.
87 Vogiatzi MG, Boeck MA, Vlachopapadopoulou E, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone in morbidly obese adolescents: effects on weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin resistance. Metabolism. 1996;45:1011-1015.
88 Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791.
89 Dibling D, Zemel MB. Chromium picolinate antagonized the lipogenic and antilipolytic effects of insulin in human adipocytes [abstract]. FASEB J. 1998;12:A505.
90 Cheuvront SN. The zone diet and athletic performance. Sports Med. 1999;27:213-228.
91 Coulston AM, Liu GC, Reaven GM. Plasma glucose, insulin and lipid responses to high-carbohydrate low-fat diets in normal humans. Metabolism. 1983;32:52-56.
92 Lefebvre PJ, Luyckx AS. Effect of insulin on glucagon enhanced lipolysis in vitro. Diabetologia. 1969;5:195-197.
93 Jensen MD, Caruso M, Heiling V, et al. Insulin regulation of lipolysis in nondiabetic and IDDM subjects. Diabetes. 1989;38:1595-1601.
94 Howard BV, Savage PJ, Nagulesparan M, et al. Evidence for marked sensitivity to the antilipolytic action of insulin in obese maturity-onset diabetics. Metabolism. 1979;28:744-750.
95 Fraze E, Donner CC, Swislocki AL, et al. Ambient plasma free fatty acid concentrations in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: evidence for insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1985;61:807-811.
96 Sigal RJ, El-Hashimy M, Martin BC, et al. Acute postchallenge hyperinsulinemia predicts weight gain: a prospective study. Diabetes. 1997;46:1025-1029.
97 Olefsky JM, Nolan JJ. Insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(suppl 4):980S-986S.
98 Eckel RH. Insulin resistance: an adaptation for weight maintenance. Lancet. 1992;340:1452-1453.
99 Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, et al. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20:293-306.
100 Saydah SH, Loria CM, Eberhardt MS, et al. Subclinical states of glucose intolerance and risk of death in the US. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:447-453.
101 Job FP, Wolfertz J, Meyer R, et al. Hyperinsulinism in patients with coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis. 1994;5:487-492.
102 Despres JP, Lamarche B, Mauriege P, et al. Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:952-957.
103 Pyorala K, Savolainen E, Kaukola S, et al. Plasma insulin as coronary heart disease risk factor: relationship to other risk factors and predictive value during 9 1/2-year follow-up of the Helsinki Policemen Study population. Acta Med Scand. 1985;701:38-52.
104 Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Mauriege P, et al. Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density lipoprotein particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease. JAMA. 1998;279:1955-1961.
105 Haffner SM. The importance of hyperglycemia in the nonfasting state to the development of cardiovascular disease. Endocr Rev. 1998;19:583-592.
106 Fontbonne A, Tchobroutsky G, Eschwege E, et al. Coronary heart disease mortality risk: plasma insulin level is a more sensitive marker than hypertension or abnormal glucose tolerance in overweight males. The Paris Prospective Study. Int J Obes. 1988;12:557-565.
107 Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791.
108 Wilson BE, Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;28:179-184.
109 Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. Metabolism. 1983;32:894-899.
110 Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, et al. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care. 1983;6:319-327.
111 Trow LG, Lewis J, Greenwood RH, et al. Lack of effect of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2000;70:14-18.
112 Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. supplemental-chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:909-916.
113 Uusitupa MI, Mykkanen L, Siitonen O, et al. Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. Br J Nutr. 1992;68:209-216.
114 Cefalu WT, Bell-Farrow AD, Stegner J, et al. Effect of chromium picolinate on insulin sensitivity in vivo. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1999;12:71-83.
115 Kalman D, Colker CM, Stark S, et al. Effect of pyruvate supplementation on body composition and mood. Curr Ther Res. 1998;59:793-802.
116 Rigaud D, Ryttig KR, Angel LA, et al. Overweight treated with energy restriction and a dietary fibre supplement: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Obes. 1990;14:763-769.
117 Birketvedt GS, Aaseth J, Florholmen JR, et al. Long-term effect of fibre supplement and reduced energy intake on body weight and blood lipids in overweight subjects. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2000;43:129-132.
118 Wuolijoki E, Hirvela T, Ylitalo P. Decrease in serum LDL cholesterol with microcrystalline chitosan. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1999;21:357-361.
119 Thom E. Hydroxycitrate (HCA) in the treatment of obesity [abstract]. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20(suppl 4):75.
120 Badmaev V, Majeed M, Conte AA, et al. Garcinia cambogia for weight loss [letter]. JAMA. 1999;282:233-234.
121 Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WH. The effects of 2-week ingestion of (-)-hydroxycitrate and (-)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on satiety, fat oxidation, energy expenditure and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:1087-1094.
122 Smedman A, Vessby B. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans—metabolic effects. Lipids. 2001;36:773-781.
123 Seaton TB, Welle SL, Warenko MK, et al. Thermic effect of medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44:630-634.
124 Scalfi L, Coltorti A, Contaldo F. Postprandial thermogenesis in lean and obese subjects after meals supplemented with medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1130-1133.
125 Baba N, Bracco EF, Hashim SA. Enhanced thermogenesis and diminished deposition of fat in response to overfeeding with diet containing medium chain triglyceride. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;35:678-682.
126 Krotkiewski M. Value of VLCD supplementation with medium chain triglycerides. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:1393-1400.
127 Yost TJ, Eckel RH. Hypocaloric feeding in obese women: metabolic effects of medium-chain triglyceride substitution. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:326-330.
128 Geliebter A, Torbay N, Bracco EF, et al. Overfeeding with medium-chain triglyceride diet results in diminished deposition of fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37:1-4.
129 Girola M, de Bernardi M, Contos S, et al. Dose effect in lipid-lowering activity of a new dietary integrator (chitosan, Garcinia cambogia extract, and chrome). Acta Toxicol Ther. 1996;17:25-40.
130 Andersen T, Fogh J. Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001;14:243-250.
131 Tsuji H, Kasai M, Takeuchi H, et al. Dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols suppress accumulation of body fat in a double-blind, controlled trial in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2001;131:2853-2859.
132 Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat in healthy exercising humans. J Int Med Res. 2001;29:392-396.
133 Antonio J, Sanders MS, Van Gammeren D. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Nutr. 2001;17:243-247.
134 Riserus U, Berglund L, Vessby B. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:1129-1135.
135 Boozer CN, Daly PA, Homel P, et al. Herbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:593-604.
136 Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Anderson RA, et al. Effects of resistive training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle size in older women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002;12:125-135.
137 Matsuo T, Matsuo M, Kasai M, et al. Effects of a liquid diet supplement containing structured medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols on bodyfat accumulation in healthy young subjects. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2001;10:46-50.
138 Pittler MH, Stevinson C, Ernst E. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: Meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:522-529.
139 Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, et al. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003;289:1537-1545.
140 St-Onge MP, Ross R, Parsons WD, et al. Medium-chain triglycerides increase energy expenditure and decrease adiposity in overweight men. Obes Res. 2003;11:395-402.
141 Maki KC, Davidson MH, Tsushima R, et al. Consumption of diacylglycerol oil as part of a reduced-energy diet enhances loss of body weight and fat in comparison with consumption of a triacylglycerol control oil. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:1230-1236.
142 Kamphuis MM, Mela DJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Diacylglycerols affect substrate oxidation and appetite in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1133-1139.
143 Paranjpe P, Patki P, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic treatment of obesity: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29:1-11.
144 Shafshak TS. Electroacupuncture and exercise in body weight reduction and their application in rehabilitating patients with knee osteoarthritis. Am J Chin Med. 1995;23:15-25.
145 Mok MS, Parker LN, Voina S, et al. Treatment of obesity by acupuncture. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976;29:832-835.
146 Mazzoni R, Mannucci E, Rizzello SM, et al. Failure of acupuncture in the treatment of obesity: a pilot study. Eating Weight Disord. 1999;4:198-202.
147 Barr SI. Increased dairy product or calcium intake: is body weight or composition affected in humans? J Nutr. 2003;133:245S-248S.
148 Allison DB, Faith MS. Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obesity: a meta-analytic reappraisal. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64:513-516.
149 Howarth NC, Saltzman E, McCrory MA, et al. Fermentable and nonfermentable fiber supplements did not alter hunger, satiety or body weight in a pilot study of men and women consuming self-selected diets. J Nutr. 2003;133:3141-3144.
150 Mhurchu CN, Poppitt SD, McGill AT, et al. The effect of the dietary supplement, Chitosan, on body weight: a randomised controlled trial in 250 overweight and obese adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:1149-1156.
151 Caraccio, TR. Chronic arsenic (As) toxicity from Chitosan supplement [abstract]. Clin Tox. 2002;644.
152 Coffey CS, Steiner D, Baker BA, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a product containing ephedrine, caffeine, and other ingredients from herbal sources for treatment of overweight and obesity in the absence of lifestyle treatment. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print]
153 Beermann C, Jelinek J, Reinecker T, et al. Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers. Lipids Health Dis. 2003 Nov 17. [Epub ahead of print]
154 St-Onge MP, Jones PJ. Greater rise in fat oxidation with medium-chain triglyceride consumption relative to long-chain triglyceride is associated with lower initial body weight and greater loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:1565-1571.
155 Yasunaga K, Glinsmann WH, Seo Y, et al. Safety aspects regarding the consumption of high-dose dietary diacylglycerol oil in men and women in a double-blind controlled trial in comparison with consumption of a triacylglycerol control oil. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42:1419-1429.
156 Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, et al. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004;12:582-590.
157 Cifuentes M, Riedt CS, Brolin RE, et al. Weight loss and calcium intake influence calcium absorption in overweight postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:123-130.
158 Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:198-226.
159 Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:2243-2248.
160 Preuss HG, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, et al. Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004;6:171-180.
161 Kamphuis MM, Lejeune MP, Saris WH, et al. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:840-847.
162 Malpuech-Brugere C, Verboeket-Van De Venne WP, Mensink RP, et al. Effects of two conjugated linoleic acid isomers on body fat mass in overweight humans. Obes Res. 2004;12:591-598.
163 Gaullier JM, Halse J, Hoye K, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:1118-1125.
164 Larsen TM, Toubro S, Astrup A. Efficacy and safety of dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for the treatment of obesity-evidence from animal and human studies. J Lipid Res. 2003. [Epub ahead of print]
165 Moloney F, Yeow TP, Mullen A, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:887-895.
166 Riserus U, Vessby B, Arner P, et al. supplementation with trans10 cis12-conjugated linoleic acid induces hyperproinsulinaemia in obese men: close association with impaired insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia. 2004 May 28. [Epub ahead of print]
167 Lejeune MP, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM, et al. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2003;90:651-660.
168 Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, et al. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr. 2004;91:431-437.
169 Vogels N, Nijs IM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effect of grape-seed extract on 24 h energy intake in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58:667-673.
170 Mhurchu CN, Dunshea-Mooij C, Bennett D, et al. Effect of chitosan on weight loss in overweight and obese individuals: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2005;6:35-42.
171 Lorenzen JK, Molgaard C, Michaelsen KF, et al. Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:18-23.
172 Boon N, Hul GB, Viguerie N, et al. Effects of 3 diets with various calcium contents on 24-h energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and adipose tissue message RNA expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:1244-1252.
173 Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, et al. Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:751-756.
174 Reid IR, Horne A, Mason B, et al. Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight and blood pressure in normal older women: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr 12. [Epub ahead of print]
175 Zemel MB, Richards J, Mathis S, et al. Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects. Int J Obes. 2005;29:391-397.
176 Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM, et al. Effect of calcium and dairy foods in high protein, energy-restricted diets on weight loss and metabolic parameters in overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print]
177 Zemel MB, Richards J, Milstead A, et al. Effects of calcium and dairy on body composition and weight loss in african-american adults. Obes Res. 2005;13:1218-1225.
178 Kalman DS, Colker CM, Swain MA, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adults. Curr Ther Res. 2000;61:435-442.
179 Zenk J, Helmer T, Kassen L, et al. The effects of NaturaLean on weight loss: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled Trial. Curr Ther Res. 2002;63:263-272.
181 Godard MP, Johnson BA, Richmond SR, et al. Body composition and hormonal adaptations associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obes Res. 2005;13:1335-1343.
182 Greenway FL, Liu Z, Martin CK, et al. Safety and efficacy of NT, an herbal supplement, in treating human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Apr 25. [Epub ahead of print]
183 Layer P, Zinsmeister AR, DiMagno EP. Effects of decreasing intraluminal amylase activity on starch digestion and postprandial gastrointestinal function in humans. Gastroenterology. 1986;91:41-48.
184 Starch blockers do not block starch digestion. Nutr Rev. 1985;43:46-48.
185 Draeger KE, Vertesy L, Grigoleit HG. Starch blockers. Lancet, 1983;1:354-355.
186 Ballerini R. Summary of clinical study evaluating effectiveness of Phase 2. In vivo effectiveness of a starch absorption blocker in a double-blind placebo-controlled study with normal college-age subjects.
187 Vinson JA, Shuta DM, Al Kharrat H. In vivo effectiveness of a starch absorption blocker in a double-blind placebo-controlled study with normal subjects.
188 Larsen TM, Toubro S, Gudmundsen O, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y does not prevent weight or body fat regain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:606-612.
189 Taylor JS, Williams SR, Rhys R, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid impairs endothelial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec 8. [Epub ahead of print].
190 Voevodin M, Sinclair A, Gibson R, et al. The effect of CLA on body composition in humans: systematic review and meta-analysis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(suppl):S55.
191 Taylor JS, Williams SR, Rhys R, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid impairs endothelial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec 8. [Epub ahead of print].
192 Armanini D, Nacamulli D, Francini-Pesenti F, et al. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application. Steroids. 2005;70:538-542.
193 Garrison R, Chambliss WG. Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on weight management: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006;12:50-54.
194 Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Nijs IM, et al. Effect of green tea on resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during weight loss in overweight females. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:1026-1034.
195 Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Vogels N, et al. Metabolic effects of green tea and of phases of weight loss. Physiol Behav. 2005 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]
196 Chan CC, Koo MW, Ng EH, et al. Effects of Chinese green tea on weight, and hormonal and biochemical profiles in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome—a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2005;13:63-68.
197 Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:122-129.
198 Scott CB, Devore R. Diet-induced thermogenesis: variations among three isocaloric meal-replacement shakes. Nutrition. 2005;21:874-877.
199 Peyrebrune MC, Stokes K, Hall GM, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on training for competition in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:2140-2147.
200 Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2005;293:43-53.
201 Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Osganian SK, et al. Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics. 2006;117:673-680.
202 Watras AC, Buchholz AC, Close RN, et al. The role of conjugated linoleic acid in reducing body fat and preventing holiday weight gain. Int J Obes. 2006 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print]
203 Johnston CS, Corte C, Swan PD. Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in young adults. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print]
204 Syvertsen C, Halse J, Hoivik HO, et al. The effect of 6 months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on insulin resistance in overweight and obese. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Oct 10. [Epub ahead of print]
205 Kaats GR, Michalek JE, Preuss HG. Evaluating efficacy of a chitosan product using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25:389-394.
206 Opala T, Rzymski P, Pischel I, et al. Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition, and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects—a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res. 2006;11:343-350.
207 Kuriyan R, Raj T, Srinivas SK, et al. Effect of Caralluma Fimbriata extract on appetite, food intake and anthropometry in adult Indian men and women. Appetite. 2006 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print]
208 Villareal DT, Fontana L, Weiss EP, et al. Bone mineral density response to caloric restriction-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2502-2510.
209 Keogh JB, Lau CW, Noakes M, et al. Effects of meals with high soluble fibre, high amylose barley variant on glucose, insulin, satiety and thermic effect of food in healthy lean women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec 13. [Epub ahead of print]
210 Melanson KJ, Zukley L, Lowndes J, et al. Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women. Nutrition. 2007;23:103-112.
211 Lukaski HC, Siders WA, Penland JG. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition. 2007 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]
212 Celleno L, Tolaini MV, D'Amore A, et al. A dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women. Int J Med Sci. 2007;4:45-52.
213 Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007;297:969-77.
214 Steck SE, Chalecki AM, Miller P, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. J Nutr. 2007;137:1188-1193.
215 Sites CK, Cooper BC, Toth MJ, et al. Effect of a daily supplement of soy protein on body composition and insulin secretion in postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril. 2007 Apr 3. [Epub ahead of print]
216 Roberts AT, Martin CK, Liu Z, et al. The safety and efficacy of a dietary herbal supplement and gallic acid for weight loss. J Med Food. 2007;10:184-188.
217 Diepvens K, Soenen S, Steijns J, et al. Long-term effects of consumption of a novel fat emulsion in relation to body-weight management. Int J Obes. 2007 Feb 14. [Epub ahead of print]
218 Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1203-1211.
219 Caan B, Neuhouser M, Aragaki A, et al. Calcium plus vitamin d supplementation and the risk of postmenopausal weight gain. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:893-902.
220 Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, et al. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007;297:2092-2102.
221 Luscombe-Marsh ND, Noakes M, Wittert GA, et al. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:762-772.
222 Petersen M, Taylor MA, Saris WH, et al. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high-versus low-fat content. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print]
223 Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, et al. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA. 2005;294:2455-2464.
224 Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:285-293.
225 Diaz ML, Watkins BA, Li Y, et al. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]
226 Kabrnova-Hlavata K, Hainer V, Gojova M, et al. Calcium intake and the outcome of short-term weight management. Physiol Res. 2007 May 30. [Epub ahead of print]
227 Nagao T, Hase T, Tokimitsu I. A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:1473-83.
228 Laso N, Brugue E, Vidal J, et al. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components. Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]
229 Toromanyan E, Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, et al. Efficacy of Slim339® in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects. Phytother Res. 2007 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]
230 Winzenberg T, Shaw K, Fryer J, et al. Calcium supplements in healthy children do not affect weight gain, height, or body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:1789-1798.
231 Sichieri R, Moura AS, Genelhu V, et al. An 18-mo randomized trial of a low-glycemic-index diet and weight change in Brazilian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:707-713.
232 Close RN, Schoeller DA, Watras AC et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the 6-mo change in fat oxidation during sleep. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:797-804.
233 Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, et al. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:588-596.
234 Wagner G, Kindrick S, Hertzler S, et al. Effects of various forms of calcium on body weight and bone turnover markers in women participating in a weight loss program. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26:456-461.
235 Auvichayapat P, Prapochanung M, Tunkamnerdthai O, et al. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial. Physiol Behav. 2007 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print]
236 Hughes GM, Boyland EJ, Williams NJ, et al. The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThinac) on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Feb 28.
237 Li D, Xu T, Takase H, et al. Diacylglycerol-induced improvement of whole-body insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A long-term randomized, double-blind controlled study. Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb 29.
238 Matsuyama T, Tanaka Y, Kamimaki I, et al. Catechin safely improved higher levels of fatness, blood pressure, and cholesterol in children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 March 20.
239 Hsu CH, Tsai TH, Kao YH, et al. Effect of green tea extract on obese women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 2008 May 9.
240 Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:229-241.
241 Jull AB, Ni Mhurchu C, Bennett DA, Dunshea-Mooij CA, Rodgers A. Chitosan for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;CD003892.
242 Anton SD, Morrison CD, Cefalu WT, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10:405-412.
243 Yazaki Y, Faridi Z, Ma Y, et al. A pilot study of chromium picolinate for weight loss. J Altern Complement Med . 2010 Mar;16(3):291.
244 Iqbal N, Vetter ML, Moore RH, et al. Effects of a low-intensity intervention that prescribed a low-carbohydrate vs. a low-fat diet in obese, diabetic participants. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18(9):1733-1738.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -