- Breast Pain, Cyclic
- Breast Tenderness, Cyclic
- Cyclic Mastitis
- Fibrocystic Breast Disease
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
1 Horrobin DF, Manku MS, Brush M, et al. Abnormalities in plasma essential fatty acid levels in women with premenstrual syndrome and with nonmalignant breast disease. J Nutr Med . 1991;2:259-264.
2 Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, et al. Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast. Can J Surg . 1993;36:453-460.
3 Pashby NL, Mansel RE, Hughes LE, et al. A clinical trial of evening primrose oil in mastalgia [abstract]. Br J Surg . 1981;68:801.
4 Mansel RE, Gateley CA, Harrison BJ, et al. Effects and tolerability of n -6 essential fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent breast cysts—a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr Med . 1990;1:195-200.
5 Mansel RE, Harrison BJ, Melhuish J, et al. A randomized trial of dietary intervention with essential fatty acids in patients with categorized cysts. Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1990;586:288-294.
7 Dittmar FW, Bohnert KJ, Peeters M, et al. Premenstrual syndrome: treatment with a phytopharmaceutical [translated from German]. Therapie Woche Gynakol . 1992;5:60-68.
8 Peters-Welte C, Albrecht M. Menstrual abnormalities and PMS: Vitex agnus - castus [translated from German]. Therapie Woche Gynakol . 1994;7:49-52.
9 Coeugniet E, Elek E, Kuhnast R. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and its treatment [translated from German]. Arztezeitschr Naturheilverf. 1986;27:619-622.
10 Halaska M, Beles P, Gorkow C, et al. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnuscastu s extract: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Breast . 1999;8:175-181.
11 Wuttke W, Splitt G, Gorkow C, et al. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study [translated from German]. Geburtsh Frauenheilk . 1997;57:569-574.
12 Kubista E, Muller G, Spona J. Treatment of mastopathy associated with cyclic mastodynia: clinical results and hormone profiles [translated from German]. Gynakol Rundsch . 1986;26:65-79.
13 Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ . 2001;322:134-137.
16 Tamborini A, Taurell R. Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome [translated from French]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet . 1993;88:447-457.
17 Ingram DM, Hickling C , West L, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of isoflavones in the treatment of cyclical mastalgia. The Breast. 2002;11:170-174.
18 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine . 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:240
19 Mansel RE, Pye KJ, Hughes LE. A controlled trial of evening primrose oil (Efamol) in cyclic premenstrual matalgia. Abstract 47. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Premenstrual, Postpartum, and Meonopausal Mood Disorders; 1987; Kiawah Island, SC.
20 Preece PE, Hanslip JI, Gilbert L. Evening primrose oil (Efamol) for mastalgia. In: Horrobin DF, ed. Clinical Uses of Essential Fatty Acids . Montreal, Quebec: Eden; 1982: 147-154.
21 Blommers J, De Lange-De Klerk ES, Kuik DJ, et al. Evening primrose oil and fish oil for severe chronic mastalgia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 2002;187:1389-1394.
22 Kollias J, Macmillan RD, Sibbering DM, et al. Effect of evening primrose oil on clinically diagnosed fibroadenomas. Breast . 2000;9:35-36.
23 Horner NK, Lampe JW. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness. J Am Diet Assoc . 2000;100:1368-1380.
24 Goyal A, Mansel RE. A randomized multicenter study of gamolenic acid (Efamast) with and without antioxidant vitamins and minerals in the management of mastalgia. Breast J . 2005;11:41-47.
25 McFadyen IJ, Chetty U, Setchell KD, et al. A randomized double blind-cross over trial of soya protein for the treatment of cyclical breast pain. Breast . 2000;9:271-276.
26 Zeligs MA, Brownstone PK, Sharp ME, et al. Managing cyclical mastalgia with absorbable diindolylmethane: A randomized, placebo-controlled J Amer Nutr Assn. 2005;8:10-20.
27 Pruthi S, Wahner-Roedler DL, Torkelson CJ, et al. Vitamin E and evening primrose oil for management of cyclical mastalgia: a randomized pilot study. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(1):59-67.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -