- Living in or visiting the plains regions of western and central United States
- Doing activities outdoors and not using insect repellent
- Neck stiffness
- Joint and muscle pain
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- What kind of symptoms you are experiencing
- Where you have been living or traveling
- Whether you have been exposed to mosquitoes
- Blood tests
- Cerebrospinal fluid tests to evaluate the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
- IV fluids
- Antiseizure medications
- Medications to decrease brain swelling
- Breathing support— mechanical ventilation
- Stay inside between dusk and dark, when mosquitoes are most active.
- Wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts when outside.
- Use an insect repellent with DEET.
- Repair screens to prevent mosquitoes from entering the house.
- Use proper mosquito netting at night. Look for netting treated with insecticide.
- Remove standing water (such as birdbaths, clogged gutters) to prevent mosquito breeding.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases http://www.niaid.nih.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Healthy Alberta http://www.healthyalberta.com
Fact sheet: Western equine encephalitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/arbor/weefact.htm. Updated November 7, 2005. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Meningitis and encephalitis fact sheet. National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalitis%5Fmeningitis/detail%5Fencephalitis%5Fmeningitis.htm. Updated February 16, 2011. Accessed January 4, 2013.
Reimann CA, Hayes EB, et al. Epidemiology of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the United States, 1999-2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79(6):974-979.
Western equine encephalitis fact sheet. Minnesota Department of Public Health website. Available at: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/diseases/weencephalitis/wee.html. Accessed January 4, 2013.
10/1/2013 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Reimer LJ, Thomsen EK, Tisch DJ, et al. Insecticidal bed nets and filariasis transmission in Papua New Guinea. N Eng J Med. 2013;369(8):745-753.
- Reviewer: David L. Horn, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -