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- Rapid growth
- Being an athlete, especially gymnasts, weight-lifters, and football players
- Family history
- Low back pain, which may feel like muscle strain
- Stiff back
- Muscle spasms of the hamstring
- Buttock pain and spasm
- Changes in posture and/or gait
- Numbness, weakness, or tingling around the pelvis, buttochs, or thighs
- Loss of bladder control
- Exercise regularly.
- Get plenty of rest between workouts.
- Take measures to protect your back when participating in sports.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
North American Spine Society http://www.spine.org
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://www.orthoinfo.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org
Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00053. Updated October 2007. Accessed December 28, 2012.
Spondylolisthesis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 6, 2012. Accessed December 28, 2012.
- Reviewer: Warren A. Bodine, DO, CAQSM
- Review Date: 11/2015 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -