Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) for Cancer Treatment
- How does bone marrow transplantation work?
- What is bone marrow transplantation used for?
- What are the types of bone marrow transplantation?
- What does bone marrow transplantation involve?
- What adverse effects can occur with bone marrow transplantation?
How Does Bone Marrow Transplantation Work?
What Is Bone Marrow Transplantation Used for?
- Directed at the bone marrow—Most common in treatment of blood cancers like leukemias or lymphomas.
- Not directed at the bone marrow—Other cancers are treated with systemic therapy that affects all cells in the body, including stem cells.
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
- Multiple myeloma
- Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
What Are the Types of Bone Marrow Transplantation?
- Syngeneic—The donor is your identical twin.
- Related—The donor is related to you, usually your sibling.
- Unrelated—The donor is no relation to you.
|Disease||3-year Disease-free Survival|
|AML (1st complete remission)*||54%|
|AML (2nd complete remission)||73%|
|ALL (1st complete remission)**||91%|
|CML (1st chronic phase)**||93%-96% (depending on donor relation)|
|Hodgkin's lymphoma (1st complete remission)||83%|
|Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1st complete remission)||72%|
|Disease||3-year Disease Free Survival|
|AML (1st complete remission)||48%|
|AML (after 2nd complete remission)||48%|
|ALL (1st complete remission)||58%|
|ALL (2nd complete remission)||46%|
|CML (1st chronic phase)||57%|
|Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1st complete remission)**||88%|
What Does Bone Marrow Transplantation Involve?
What Adverse Effects Can Occur With Bone Marrow Transplantation?
- Graft failure or rejection
- Veno-occlusive disease
- Graft-versus-host disease
- Disease recurrence
- Short-term side effects
- Maintain a protective environment
- Help you maintain good hygiene
- Frequently monitor your vital signs and perform complete examinations
- Use of immunosuppressant drugs.
- Lung damage, which can result from the radiation used in the conditioning regimen.
- Total body irradiation.
- Presence of opportunistic infections—These are infections that take advantage of the fact that the body's normal defenses are compromised. Normally, your immune system would be able to fight these infections.
- Acute—This occurs within 100 days of transplant. Target organs are the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, and the liver.
- Chronic—This typically occurs more than 100 days after transplant. Almost every organ can be affected by chronic GVHD.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Merck Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/immunology-allergic-disorders/transplantation/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation. Updated April 2013. Accessed May 26, 2015.
Stem cell (bone marrow) transplant. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dba/stem.html. Updated February 20, 2015. Accessed May 26, 2015.
Stem cell transplant (peripheral blood, bone marrow, and cord transplants). American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003215-pdf.pdf. Accessed May 26, 2015.
US patient survival report. Health Resources and Services Administration Blood Cell Transplant website. Available at: http://bloodcell.transplant.hrsa.gov/research/transplant%5Fdata/us%5Ftx%5Fdata/survival%5Fdata/survival.aspx. Accessed May 26, 2015.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 03/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/26/2015 -