What Does It Really Mean to Have Prediabetes?
What Is Prediabetes?
- Family history of diabetes
- Having hypertension , high cholesterol , or high triglycerides
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Belonging to certain ethnic groups (Hispanic American, Asian American, Pacific Islander, Native American, or African American)
- History of gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms)
- History of cardiovascular disease
- Having a condition associated with insulin resistance, such as polycystic ovary syndrome or metabolic syndrome
How Do You Know If You Have Prediabetes?
- Fasting plasma glucose test—For this test, you fast overnight and have your blood glucose measured in the morning before eating. Results in the range of 100-125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) may indicate prediabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)—Again, you fast overnight and have your blood glucose measured after the fast. Then, you consume a sugary drink and have your blood glucose measured two hours later. Results in the range of 140-199 mg/dL (7.8-11 mmol/L) indicate prediabetes.
- Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)—This is an indicator of your average blood sugar levels over the previous three months. Results in the range of 5.7%-6.4% indicate prediabetes.
What Can You Do If You Have Prediabetes?
How Can You Prevent Prediabetes?
- Lose excess weight
- Exercise for at least 150 minutes per week
- Reduce your intake of calories and fat—Also, try to eat more fiber and whole grains.
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org
National Diabetes Education Program http://www.ndep.nih.gov
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Am I at risk for type 2 diabetes? Taking steps to lower the risk of getting diabetes. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/riskfortype2/risk.pdf. Published November 2008. Accessed June 3, 2014.
American Diabetes Association and National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1-8.
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or Metformin. NEJM. 2002;346:393-403.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 prevention. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 31, 2014. Accessed June 3, 2014.
Diagnosing diabetes and learning about prediabetes. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/are-you-at-risk/prediabetes. Updated Janyary 4, 2014. Accessed June 3, 2014.
Kanaya AM, Narayan KM. Prevention of type 2 diabetes: Data from recent trials. Primary Care. 2003;30:511-526.
Narayan K, Imperatore G. Targeting people with prediabetes. British Medical Journal. 2002;325:403-404.
Nathan DM. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:753.
Prediabetes. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 13, 2014. Accessed June 3, 2014.
Tuomilehto J, Lindstorm J. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2004;344:1343-1350.
10/21/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Greaves CJ, Middlebrooke A, O'Loughlin L, et al. Motivational interviewing for modifying diabetes risk: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2008;58:535-540.
10/12/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Crandall JP, Polsky S, Howard AA, et al. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:595-601.
2/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2010. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(suppl 1:S11-S61).
2/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(suppl 1:S62-S69).
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2014 -