|Mitral Valve Regurgitation|
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- Mitral valve prolapse—Abnormal closure of the valve with protrusion of a leaflet tip backward into the left atrium, causing it to leak.
- Infections that cause scarring of the heart valve, such as rheumatic fever or bacterial endocarditis .
- Damage from a heart attack .
- Several different types of congenital heart defects , which can affect mitral valve function.
- Cardiomyopathies—Diseases that weaken the heart muscle and stretch the mitral valve.
- A history of rheumatic fever or other serious infectious disease
- Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis
- Storage diseases such as hemochromatosis and glycogen storage disease
- Cardiovascular disease
- Muscle disease
- Radiation exposure
- Exposure to certain drugs such as lithium, sulfonamides, cancer chemotherapy , and phenothiazines
- Chronic, progressive fatigue
- Shortness of breath, especially with exertion
- Worsening shortness of breath when you lie down
- New, associated palpitations or racing heart rate, which may suggest the development of a heart arrhythmia
Treat Underlying Disease
- Prevent cardiovascular disease by controlling weight and blood pressure , exercising, eating heart-healthy foods, and watching your cholesterol levels
- Avoid contact with streptococcal diseases including strep throat , pharyngitis , and scarlet fever
- Get prompt treatment for infections
- Avoid IV drug use
- Limit alcohol intake
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.ca
Braunwald E. Valvular heart disease. In: Isselbacher K, et al. (Eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
Mitral regurgitation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 2, 2014. Accessed August 20, 2014.
Shipton B and Wahba H. Valvular heart disease: review and update. Am Fam Physician. 2001;63:2201-2208.
Wood AJJ. Adverse reactions to drugs. In: Isselbacher K, et al. (Eds.) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
Wynne J, Braunwald E. The cardiomyopathies and myocarditides. In: Isselbacher K, et al. (Eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicinem. 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 05/02/2014 -