|The Lungs (Cut-away View)|
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- Contact with someone who has an infection (mycoplasma and chlamydia)
- Exposure to water or soil that contains the bacteria (legionella)
- Living in closed communities, such as dormitories in boarding schools or colleges, nursing homes, and military barracks
- Cigarette smoking
- Lung disease
- Weakened immune system
General signs of infection such as:
- Fever (mild)
- Enlarged lymph nodes
- Muscle aches and pains
Signs of respiratory infection such as:
- Cough that may produce phlegm
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Fast breathing
- Sore throat
- Abdominal pain
- Decreased appetite
- Skin rash
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Blood cultures
- Sputum test
- Pulse oximetry
- Arterial blood gas
- Use good hand-washing techniques.
- Avoid contact with other ill people.
- Get treatment for your chronic conditions.
American Lung Association http://www.lung.org
National Institute for Allergies and Infectious Disease http://www.niaid.nih.gov
The Canadian Lung Association http://www.lung.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Blasi F, Tarsia P, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae and mycoplasma pneumoniae. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;26:617-624.
Community-acquired pneumonia in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 25, 2013. Accessed April 2, 2013.
Cunha BA. The atypical pneumonias: Clinical diagnosis and importance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12(Suppl)3:12-24.
Cunha BA. Atypical pneumonias: Current clinical concepts focusing on Legionnaires' disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2008;14:183-194.
Types of pneumonia. National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/types.html. Updated March 1, 2011. Accessed April 2, 2013.
Understanding pneumonia. American Lung Association website. Available at: http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/pneumonia/understanding-pneumonia.html. Accessed April 2, 2013.
Thibodeau KP, Viera A.J. Atypical pathogens and challenges in community-acqiured pneumonia. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:1699-1706.
- Reviewer: David L. Horn, MD
- Review Date: 02/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/02/2014 -